Does moderate drinking reduce heart failure risk?

NHS Choices - Behind the Headlines - Tue, 20/10/2015 - 12:10

"Seven alcoholic drinks a week can help to prevent heart disease," the Daily Mirror reports. A US study suggests alcohol consumption up to this level may have a protective effect against heart failure.

This large US study followed more than 14,000 adults aged 45 and older for 24 years. It found those who drank up to 12 UK units (7 standard US "drinks") per week at the start of the study had a lower risk of developing heart failure than those who never drank alcohol.

The average alcohol consumption in this lower risk group was about 5 UK units a week (around 2.5 low-strength ABV 3.6% pints of lager a week).

At this level of consumption, men were 20% less likely to develop heart failure compared with people who never drank, while for women it was 16%.

The study benefits from its large size and the fact data was collected over a long period of time.

But studying the impact of alcohol on outcomes is fraught with difficulty. These difficulties include people not all having the same idea of what a "drink" or "unit" is.

People may also intentionally misreport their alcohol intake. We also cannot be certain alcohol intake alone is giving rise to the reduction in risk seen.

Steps you can take to help reduce your risk of heart failure – and other types of heart disease – include eating a healthy diet, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, and quitting smoking (if you smoke).


Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and other research centres in the US, the UK and Portugal.

It was published in the peer-reviewed European Heart Journal.

The UK media generally did not translate the measure of "drinks" used in this study into UK units, which people might have found easier to understand.

The standard US "drink" in this study contained 14g of alcohol, and a UK unit is 8g of alcohol. So the group with the reduced risk actually drank up to 12 units a week.

The reporting also makes it seem as though 12 units – what is referred to in the papers as "a glass a day" – is the optimal level, but the study cannot not tell us this.

While consumption in this lower risk group was "up to" 12 units per week, the average consumption was about 5 units per week. This is about 3.5 small glasses (125ml of 12% alcohol by volume) of wine a week, not a "glass a day".

And the poor old Daily Express got itself into a right muddle. At the time of writing, its website is actually running two versions of the story. 

One story claims moderate alcohol consumption was linked to reduced heart failure risk, which is accurate. 

The other story claims moderate alcohol consumption protects against heart attacks, which is not accurate, as a heart attack is an entirely different condition to heart failure.


What kind of research was this?

This was a large prospective cohort study looking at the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of heart failure.

Heavy alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of heart failure, but the researchers say the effects of moderate alcohol consumption are not clear.

This type of study is the best way to look at the link between alcohol consumption and health outcomes, as it would not be feasible (or arguably ethical) to randomise people to consume different amounts of alcohol over a long period of time.

As with all observational studies, other factors (confounders) may be having an effect on the outcome, and it is difficult to be certain their impact has been entirely removed.

Studying the effects of alcohol intake is notoriously difficult for a range of reasons. Not least is what can be termed the "Del Boy effect": in one episode of the comedy Only Fools and Horses, the lead character tells his GP he is a teetotal fitness fanatic when in fact the opposite is true – people often misrepresent how healthy they are when talking to their doctor.


What did the research involve?

The researchers recruited adults (average age 54 years) who did not have heart failure in 1987 to 1989, and followed them up over about 24 years.

Researchers assessed the participants' alcohol consumption at the start of and during the study, and identified any participants who developed heart failure.

They then compared the likelihood of developing heart failure among people with different levels of alcohol intake.

Participants came from four communities in the US, and were aged 45 to 64 years old at the start of the study. The current analyses only included black or white participants. People with evidence of heart failure at the start of the study were excluded.

The participants had annual telephone calls with researchers, and in-person visits every three years.

At each interview, participants were asked if they currently drank alcohol and, if not, whether they had done so in the past. Those who drank were asked how often they usually drank wine, beer, or spirits (hard liquor).

It was not clear exactly how participants were asked to quantify their drinking, but the researchers used the information collected to determine how many standard drinks each person consumed a week.

A drink in this study was considered to be 14g of alcohol. In the UK, 1 unit is 8g of pure alcohol, so this drink would be 1.75 units in UK terms.

People developing heart failure were identified by looking at hospital records and national death records. This identified those recorded as being hospitalised for, or dying from, heart failure.

For their analyses, the researchers grouped people according to their alcohol consumption at the start of the study, and looked at whether their risk of heart failure differed across the groups.

They repeated their analyses using people's average alcohol consumption over the first nine years of the study.

The researchers took into account potential confounders at the start of the study, including:

  • age
  • health conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke and heart attack
  • cholesterol levels
  • body mass index (BMI)
  • smoking
  • physical activity level
  • educational level (as an indication of socioeconomic status)


What were the basic results?

Among the participants:

  • 42% never drank alcohol
  • 19% were former alcohol drinkers who had stopped
  • 25% reported drinking up to 7 drinks (up to 12.25 UK units) per week (average consumption in this group was about 3 drinks per week, or 5.25 UK units)
  • 8% reported drinking 7 to 14 drinks (12.25 to 24.5 UK units) per week
  • 3% reported drinking 14 to 21 drinks (24.5 to 36.75 UK units) per week
  • 3% reported drinking 21 drinks or more (36.75 UK units or more) per week

People in the various alcohol consumption categories differed from each other in a variety of ways. For example, heavier drinkers tended to be younger and have lower BMIs, but be more likely to smoke.

Overall, about 17% of participants were hospitalised for, or died from, heart failure during the 24 years of the study.

Men who drank up to 7 drinks per week at the start of the study were 20% less likely to develop heart failure than those who never drank alcohol (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 0.94).

Women who drank up to 7 drinks per week at the start of the study were 16% less likely to develop heart failure than those who never drank alcohol (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00).

But at the upper level of the confidence interval (1.00), there would be no actual difference in risk reduction.

People who drank 7 drinks a week or more did not differ significantly in their risk of heart failure compared with those who never drank alcohol.

Those who drank the most (21 drinks per week or more for men, and those drinking 14 drinks per week or more for women) were more likely to die from any cause during the study.


How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers concluded that, "Alcohol consumption of up to 7 drinks [about 12 UK units] per week at early middle age is associated with lower risk for future HF [heart failure], with a similar but less definite association in women than in men."



This study suggests drinking up to about 12 UK units a week is associated with a lower risk of heart failure in men compared with never drinking alcohol.

There was a similar result for women, but the results were not as robust and did not rule out the possibility of there being no difference.

The study benefits from its large size (more than 14,000 people) and the fact it collected its data prospectively over a long period of time.

However, studying the impact of alcohol on outcomes is fraught with difficulty. These difficulties include people not being entirely sure what a "drink" or a "unit" is, and reporting their intakes incorrectly as a result.

In addition, people may intentionally misreport their alcohol intake – for example, if they are concerned about what the researchers will think about their intake.

Also, people who do not drink may do so for reasons linked to their health, so may have a greater risk of being unhealthy.

Other limitations are that while the researchers did try to take a number of confounders into account, unmeasured factors could still be having an effect, such as diet.

For example, these confounders were only assessed at the start of the study, and people may have changed over the study period (such as taking up smoking). 

The study only identified people who were hospitalised for, or died from, heart failure. This misses people who had not yet been hospitalised or died from the condition.

The results also may not apply to younger people, and the researchers could not look at specific patterns of drinking, such as binge drinking.

Although no level of alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of heart failure in this study, the authors note few people drank very heavily in their sample. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to lead to heart damage.

The study also did not look at the incidence of other alcohol-related illnesses, such as liver disease. Deaths from liver disease in the UK have increased 400% since 1970, due in part to increased alcohol consumption, as we discussed in November 2014.

The NHS recommends that:

  • men should not regularly drink more than 3-4 units of alcohol a day
  • women should not regularly drink more than 2-3 units a day
  • if you've had a heavy drinking session, avoid alcohol for 48 hours

Here, "regularly" means drinking this amount every day or most days of the week.

The amount of alcohol consumed in the study group with the reduced risk was within the UK's recommended maximum consumption limits.

But it is generally not recommended that people take up drinking alcohol just for any potential heart benefits. If you do drink alcohol, you should stick within the recommended limits.

Analysis by Bazian. Edited by NHS Choices. Follow Behind the Headlines on Twitter. Join the Healthy Evidence forum.

Links To The Headlines

Seven alcoholic drinks a week can help to prevent heart disease, new research reveals. Daily Mirror, January 20 2015

A drink a day 'cuts heart disease risk by a fifth' researchers don't worry about having a dry January. Mail Online, January 19 2015

A drink a night 'is better for your heart than none at all'. The Independent, January 19 2015

Glass of wine a day could protect the heart. The Daily Telegraph, January 20 2015

Daily drink 'cuts risk' of middle-age heart failure. The Times, January 20 2015

Drinking half a pint of beer a day could fight heart failure. Daily Express, January 20 2015

Links To Science

Gonçalves A, Claggett B, Jhund PS, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. European Heart Journal. Published online January 20 2015

Categories: NHS Choices

Barclays to speed up cost-cuts and asset sales

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 17:19
LONDON (Reuters) - Barclays' new chairman sought to stamp his mark on the bank on Wednesday by accelerating the sale of assets and cost cutting after the group produced a 12 percent increase in second-quarter profits.

Volkswagen lowers sales goal as China growth slows down

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 17:13
BERLIN (Reuters) - Volkswagen lowered its global sales forecast on Wednesday and said it was braced for stagnant volumes in China, after years of double-digit growth in its biggest market.

FTSE finishes higher, Hikma and GlaxoSmithKline boost

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 16:55
LONDON (Reuters) - FTSE 100 index advanced on Wednesday, with Hikma Pharmaceuticals leading the market higher on positive broker comments and GlaxoSmithKline gaining after reporting a lower-than-expected fall in quarterly earnings.

Rolls-Royce wins $580 million engine servicing deal with Vietnam Airlines

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 16:30
LONDON (Reuters) - British engineering company Rolls-Royce said it won a $580 million (£370.5 million) contract with Vietnam Airlines to provide servicing and maintenance to its Trent XWB engines which will power 14 Airbus A350 aircraft.

Zurich Insurance says any RSA bid likely to be all in cash

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 16:28
ZURICH (Reuters) - Zurich Insurance Group said that any offer it might make for British rival RSA would likely be in cash, a day after it said it was weighing a bid.

New British bank Atom raising 25 million pounds - sources

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 15:59
LONDON (Reuters) - New British bank Atom is close to raising a further 25 million pounds ($39 million) from investors including fund manager Neil Woodford to support its launch later in the year, sources familiar with the matter said.

Bank of England creates capital buffer for banks to absorb losses

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 15:43
LONDON (Reuters) - The Bank of England has made changes to the way banks hold capital above the mandatory minimum in an effort to increase transparency and better absorb losses in the event of a financial shock, such as a housing market crash.

Lufthansa's risky bet with booking fees: will it pay off?

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 15:23
BERLIN (Reuters) - Lufthansa is about to take a bold step to boost profits by charging a fee for tickets booked through third parties, hoping new technology and greater price transparency will allow it to retain customers where others have failed.

Disappointed ECB says euro zone economies further apart than at the start

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 15:00
FRANKFURT (Reuters) - The euro zone's founding members are further apart economically than they were, a "disappointing" outcome defying the premise that laggards would slowly catch up in common currency bloc, the European Central Bank said on Wednesday.

Are British parents paying more to visit Disneyland Paris than French customers?

Newmarket Journal - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:58

Disneyland Paris is facing a pricing probe amid claims it charges British tourists more than its French customers, according to a report.

Categories: Local Press

Weak profit forecasts from merger partners beset LafargeHolcim

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:54
ZURICH/PARIS (Reuters) - Weak profit forecasts from Holcim and Lafarge weighed on the newly merged LafargeHolcim , the world's biggest cement maker, highlighting tough conditions that have sparked more consolidation across the sector.

Man dies after collision on A14 in Cambridgeshire

Newmarket Journal - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:53

A man has died in hospital after he was involved in a collision on the A14 at Girton on Monday (July 27).

Categories: Local Press

NICE produces new draft guidelines on caring for the dying

NHS Choices - Behind the Headlines - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:30

"England's health watchdog has put forward new draft guidance to improve the care of adults in their last few days of life," BBC News reports.

The guidelines, produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), have been proposed as an alternative to the controversial Liverpool Care Pathway, which was phased out in 2014.


What was the Liverpool Care Pathway?

The Liverpool Care Pathway was developed during the late 1990s at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, in conjunction with the Marie Curie Palliative Care Institute. It was intended to provide the best quality of care possible for dying patients in the last days and hours of life, whether they were in hospital, at home, in a care home or in a hospice.

It was designed to address concerns such as:

  • patients being subjected to invasive testing and treatment that offered no chance of preventing death
  • causing unnecessary pain and suffering by needlessly prolonging life


Why did it become controversial?

There were three main issues of controversy that were widely reported in the media:

  • the assessment that a person was dying was not always made by an experienced clinician and was not reliably reviewed
  • the dying person may have been unduly sedated as a result of poor prescribing methods
  • there were claims that hydration and some essential medicines may have been withheld, which may have a negative impact on the dying process

It appeared that while the Pathway itself was sound, some staff may not have been following its recommendations correctly. For example, withdrawal of nutrition and fluids should never be a routine option, but done only if it is felt to be in the best interests of the patient, judged on a case-by-case basis.


What are the main recommendations of the new draft guideline?

A summary of the most important points is provided below. 

NICE has published the complete guideline, including relevant evidence (PDF, 3.4Mb).

Recognising when a person is in the last days of their life

If it is thought that a person may be dying, information should be gathered on their:

  • clinical signs and symptoms, and medical history
  • the person's goals and wishes, as well as their psychological and spiritual needs
  • the views of those important to the person with respect to future care

The assessment of their clinical state should be made on a team basis and not just by one individual. The assessment should be reviewed at least every 24 hours.


Establish their communication needs, their current level of understanding and how much information they want to know about their prognosis. If patients or their families do want information, staff should discuss any concerns they have, while avoiding giving false hope.

Shared decision making

Find out how much the person wants to be involved in terms of shared decision making when it comes their care plan. As part of this process, find out whether the person has an advanced care plan or decision in place, as well as their goals and wishes.


A dying person should always be supported if they wish to drink and are able to, though it is important to check for potential risks, such as swallowing problems.

Encourage friends and family to help with giving drinks and mouth care. Provide any necessary aids, such as sponges.

Discuss the risks and benefits of clinically assisted hydration, such as intravenous feeding, and their wishes about its use. It is also important to make clear that clinically assisted hydration is unlikely to prolong life.

Pharmacological interventions

Discuss what level of symptom control they would want in the last days of their life, as well as the possible benefits and harms of any medicines offered.

The plan for pharmacological interventions should be regularly reviewed.


How do I make my views known?

Consultation on the guidelines will finish on September 9 2015. To register a comment, you will need to belong to an eligible stakeholder organisation, such as a national organisation for people who use health and social care services, or an organisation that funds or carries out research.

Read more about the commenting and registration process

Links To The Headlines

Dying care: 'Improved' guidelines proposed. BBC News, July 29 2015

New guidelines for care of the dying proposed. ITV News, July 28 2015

'We must end our industrialised approach to death and show compassion': Professor speaks out as the NHS is forced to remind medics to give dying patients water. Mail Online, July 29 2015

Doctors and nurses ordered to stop denying dying patients water. The Daily Telegraph, July 29 2015

Categories: NHS Choices

OMV to sell UK North Sea Rosebank project stake - sources

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:17
LONDON (Reuters) - Austrian oil and gas company OMV has put up for sale a 30 percent stake in the Rosebank oil and gas project in the British North Sea, banking sources said, as it trims its budget in the face of lower oil prices.

GSK flags up pipeline as HIV drugs help it beat profit forecasts

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:06
LONDON (Reuters) - GlaxoSmithKline moved to reclaim its prowess as a research powerhouse on Wednesday by flagging up dozens of new drugs and vaccines in development, as demand for new HIV medicines helped it beat quarterly profit forecasts.

Irish central bank planning for possible 'Brexit'

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 14:01
DUBLIN (Reuters) - Ireland's central bank is making plans in case Britain leaves the European Union and its chief economist said on Wednesday that uncertainly over possible "Brexit" was enough to depress economic growth.

Aerospace company found guilty of corporate manslaughter after man crushed to death at Cambridge Airport

Ely Standard - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 13:51

An international aerospace company has been found guilty of corporate manslaughter and putting their employees at risk following the death of one of its employees in 2013.

Categories: Local Press

UK mortgage lending jumps in June, business lending plunges

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 13:45
LONDON (Reuters) - British mortgage lending picked up strongly in June, adding to signs that the housing market is regaining momentum, but a sharp drop in lending to businesses was a reminder that the economic recovery has yet to find a sounder footing.

Outside auditors should check bank capital, UK industry body says

Reuters UK Business News - Wed, 29/07/2015 - 13:33
LONDON (Reuters) - Asking outside auditors to vouch for the accuracy of a bank's key measure of health could help restore investor trust in the sector, a London-based accounting body said on Wednesday.